Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a condition (disease) in which your pancreas does not produce insulin, a hormone your body needs to keep up proper blood sugar levels.

Type 1 Diabetes is arising due to the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which can be caused either due to a genetic component or an acquired component (autoimmune). This destruction of beta cells results in a total lack of insulin.

Carbohydrate Metabolism

After eating foods, which contain carbohydrates, chemicals in your small intestine break them down into single sugar molecules called glucose.

Next, the cells lining your duodenum absorb the glucose, which passes into the bloodstream.
When the blood reaches your pancreas, beta cells inside the pancreas detect the rising glucose levels. They react instantly by releasing insulin into your blood, which will reduce your blood sugar level and keep it regular.

Most cells of the body own receptors that bind to the circulating insulin.

The Tasks Of Insulin

Insulin is comparable to a key in a lock to open up the cell so that the circulating glucose can enter the cell. Now, your cells may use the glucose to produce the energy they need to operate well.

If you have Type 1 Diabetes, the beta cells in your pancreas have lost their ability to create insulin. The lack of insulin leads to high blood sugar levels and other complications.

In Type 1 Diabetes, your body immune system, specifically your leukocytes mistake your pancreatic beta cells for foreign invaders. In an autoimmune response, your leukocytes secret autoantibodies that destroy your beta cells.

As a result, your pancreas produces little or no insulin.

Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorder 

If insulin is missing, glucose can not enter into your cells. These starve now for the calories they should be receiving from glucose. Additionally, the glucose level increases in your bloodstream, leading to a condition called hyperglycemia.

Common symptoms of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes include:

– Excessive hunger
– Excessive thirst
– Frequent urination
– Unexplained loss of weight
– Fatigue
– Weakness
– Irritability
– Blurry vision

You can become severely ill if you don’t treat hyperglycemia

Your cells can’t use glucose for energy because you don’t have enough insulin circulating in your blood. As a result, your body decompose your fat and protein stores as an alternative source of energy. As fat breakdown continues, certain byproducts, named ketone bodies, accumulate in the blood, triggering a condition called ketosis.

A life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis results when ketones build up to dangerously high levels.

If your blood sugar remains high over time, long-term health issue can occur, including: 

– Atherosclerosis
– Blindness
– Nerve damage
– Kidney disease

Diabetes Glucometer
capture: Glucometer

What You Can Do 

Your purpose is to keep your blood sugar level within a normal range if you have type 1 diabetes. 

You can do this through a combination of: 
– proper insulin replacement,
– monitoring your blood sugar and, just as importantly,
– eating a healthy diet and
– getting regular exercise.

Because your pancreas no more produces insulin, you will have to input insulin to recoup your body’s task.

A licensed health-care professional may train you to inject the insulin just under the skin. You will need to give yourself injections several times each day, and rotate injection sites to avoid tissue damage and absorption problems.

Another way to obtain insulin is an insulin pump, which you can fix to your body. It delivers insulin through a tube implanted just under your skin.
You will have to check the level of sugar in your blood stream repeatedly every day using a glucometer. With the aid of a small needle (called a lancet), you have to prick your finger. Then put a drop of your blood in the glucometer.

Monitoring your blood sugar level allows you to adjust your insulin dose, calories you eat during meals and physical exertion.

Keep in mind that you should eat a healthy diet and get regular exercise to manage your glucose level and reduce your risk of heart disease.

Type 2 Diabetes 

If you have Type 2 diabetes, either your pancreas does not generate enough insulin, or your body’s cells resist its impacts or both. 

Type 2 diabetes is a problem in which your blood sugar level is too high also. (See also Carbohydrate Metabolism and the Disorder described above.)

If you have insulin resistance, your insulin could not unlock the cells to allow glucose in since the locks, called receptors, are absent or irregular. As an outcome, sugar is locked out of your cells. Subsequently, Subsequently, the amount of sugar increases in your bloodstream which results in a condition called hyperglycemia.

Your pancreas creates a growing amount of insulin to counter hyperglycemia. Your overworked beta cells attempt to maintain the demand, yet gradually lose
their capability to produce sufficient insulin.

As a result of hyperglycemia as well as the absence of insulin, you could experience the following

typical symptoms of diabetes:

– Excessive hunger
– Excessive thirst
– Increased pee quantity
– Unexplained weight management

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes that might appear over time consist of:

– Fatigue
– persistent infections
– modifications in vision
– Itching
– Tingling or prickling skin feelings

Harmful issues of Type 2 Diabetes consist of: 

– Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
– Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic disorder (HHNS).
– Hypoglycemia.

If you don’t obtain treatment for hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis can result.
Because you no longer have enough insulin flowing in your blood, your cells can not get the glucose they need to produce energy.

Consequently, your body counts on fats as well as proteins as an alternative resource of energy. During the fat malfunction process, certain by-products, known as ketone bodies, accumulate in your blood, leading to a condition called ketosis. If ketones accumulate to hazardously high levels in your blood stream, you may create diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, which can cause coma as well as death.

An additional issue arising from failing to treat hyperglycemia is called hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, or HHNS.
As the insulin shortage continues, your blood sugar level rises.
In response, your kidneys filter excess glucose out of the blood into the urine, together with large quantities of water.
Unless you drink large amounts of water, your kidneys can not maintain the need of eliminating the glucose from your blood stream and diluting it in urine.

Consequently, your blood becomes a lot more concentrated compared to typical, a problem called hyperosmolarity.

Hyperosmolarity draws water from your body cells right into your blood stream, triggering severe dehydration, which could bring about a hyperosmolar hypoglycemic nonketotic disorder.

Neurological symptoms, such as seizures and coma, can take place. If you take a little too much of diabetic medication, you may experience an acute difficulty called hypoglycemia or insulin shock.

Too much insulin or oral hypoglycemic medication can also trigger too much glucose to enter into cells, while the amount in your blood stream drops below a healthy level.

Specific organs, such as the brain, need a consistent power supply to operate effectively.

Because the brain’s primary source of power is sugar, it is the first body organ impacted by lower sugar levels.

When your mind cells, called neurons, are starved for sugar, they begin to malfunction, triggering symptoms, such as confusion, shakiness, and anxiety.

If your sugar level continues to go down, the electrical activity of your neurons diminishes dramatically, causing seizures or diabetic coma.

With time, improperly managed Type 2 Diabetes can trigger degenerative tissue damages, causing long-term issues, such as:

– Atherosclerosis.
– Blindness.
– Neuropathy.
– Renal failing.

What You Can Do

To avoid the problems of Type 2 Diabetes, you could take actions to keep your sugar level in a healthy range, using a combination of:

– blood glucose monitoring.
– a healthy diet.
– regular workout.
– Medications, as necessary.

You should check the level of sugar in your blood frequently with a glucometer as explained above.
Based upon your blood sugar degree, you might have to adjust your drug dosage, meals, exercise, etc.

Consuming a balanced, healthy diet plan will aid to lower your sugar level. Your diet plan should be rich in fruits, veggies, and entire grains. It’s crucial that your mealtimes take place regularly every day.
Eat the best balance of carbohydrates, healthy proteins, and also fat, and decrease your consumption of high sugar foods.

Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes:

– A lot of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
– Regular dishes and also snacks.
– A balance of fats, carbohydrates and also healthy proteins.
– Minimal high sugar food.

A Workout Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes:

– lowers blood sugar level,
– decrease insulin resistance,
– may cause weight management.

Routine exercise – also just half an hour a day – will lower your blood sugar level, decline insulin resistance, and might result in weight loss.

You might need to take one or more diabetic medications to aid lower your blood sugar level.
Some of these drugs increase insulin production in your pancreas.
Others decrease insulin resistance in your skeletal, muscular tissues.
Some therapies boost insulin level of sensitivity in cells.
Others promote a mild decline in absorption of sugar in your digestive system.

To support your treatment you may also want to add some recommended foodsupplements or Diabetes Destroyer Programs.

By treating and managing your blood glucose level, you may avoid the occurrence of difficulties from Type 2 Diabetes.

additional links: Diabetes Care

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